Pedestrian Slip Resistance:
How to Measure It and how to Improve It
by William English, CSP, P.E.
© 1996
A Safety engineering handbook in print on slipmeters and pedestrian slip resistance

Table of Contents

Author's Preface

Chapter 1. Designing for Slip Resistance
The physics of slipping. The elements of a safe walking surface. The hydrodynamic squeezefilm. The role of floor maintenance. Remedial floor treatments. Using mats effectively. Ladder cleats and stair nosings. Falls from elevation. Technical definitions. Coefficient of friction/Slip resistance

Chapter 2. NBS Research in Tribometry
The Hunter Machine. The Sigler pendulum tester. Theoretical research. The Brungraber testers. NBS comparative testing of meters

Chapter 3. Comparability of Various Meters
The Bucknell Workshop. Slipmeter design philosophy. The role of the forceplate. The Universal Slip Resistance Tester. Specialized tester adaptation. Elemental forces in ambulation. The English XL (VIT) Tester. The ergonomically sound portable slipmeter. The state of the art in slipmeter development

Chapter 4. Slider Pads
Required properties. Leather. Neolite. Neoprene. 4-S Rubber. Other materials. Slider pad preparation. Availability of recognized materials

Chapter 5. Myths about Pedestrian Slip Resistance
SCOF of .50. How people walk. Pedestrian traction demand. Measurement techniques. Slider pad selection. The Static/Dynamic controversy. Traction requirements on stairs

Chapter 6. Slips and Falls in Restaurants
Selection of floor materials. Grease load. When to clean. Cleaning procedures. Cleaning chemistry. Polymerization. Gimmicks that don't work

Chapter 7. The Validation of Slipmeters
The fall problem. Causation of accidental slips. The effect of gait dynamics. The German ramp test. The baseline problem. Validation guidelines

Chapter 8. Factoring Slip Resistance into Means of Access to Mobile and Industrial Equipment
Falls from heavy equipment. SAE research findings. Application of human factors principles. Practical illustrations of good and bad design

Chapter 9. On the Uses of Tribometry
Who uses slipmeters. What they are good for. Who produces the tribometric standards. How to get involved. Regulation compliance

Chapter 10. Traction Testing of Footwear
Absence of valid standards. Proliferation of bogus test methods. The serious shoe testers: SATRA. SSS. Redfern machines. The English XST Shoe Traction Tester

Chapter 11. Effects of Controlling Dynamic Parameters of slipmeters
The effects of velocity of impact. Angle of impact. Magnitude of thrust and Area of contact. Results of advanced experiments with the XST shoe traction tester

Chapter 12. Standards affecting Tribometry
A listing of applicable standards and their issuing organizations. Comments concerning their significance

Chapter 13. SENRAC
A report of the latest use of slipmeters in developing proposed OSHA construction safety standards for slip resistance of structural steel products. Copies of significant documents in the fierce battle against the regulations by affected industries

Manufacturers' instruction manuals and Copies of patents for the English XL (VIT) and the Brungraber Mk II (PIAST) slipmeters

The book contains 208 pages and is profusely illustrated.

This book may be ordered from

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