Pedestrian Slip Resistance:
How to Measure It and how to Improve It, Second Edition
New Book by William English, CSP, P.E., Published July 2003
© 2003
The most complete safety engineering handbook in print on slipmeters and pedestrian slip resistance


Table of Contents

Author's Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
Introduction to the Second Edition xi

Chapter 1. Pedestrian Slip Resistance: the Remaining Safety Frontier 1
Falls are the dominant controllable loss type in the workplace, as well as in public places. The fall injury problem is understated, at that, and careful accident analysis can show the importance of effective fall control programs and suggest places to start making facilities safer. Causes of slips. Identification of problem surfaces and suggested remedial treatments. The physics of slipping. Slipmetering principles. Making the best of existing floors. Maintenance practices. Using mats effectively. Selecting safer footwear.

Chapter 2. The Development of Historically Significant Slipmeters 15
NBS Research. The Hunter Machine. The Sigler Pendulum Tester. The British Portable Skid Tester. The Brungraber Testers.

Chapter 3. Comparability of Various Slipmeters 23
Many slipmeters don't agree. The Bucknell University Slipmeter Workshop that compared nine kinds of slipmeters. Limitations of forceplate indications. Crutchtip testers and their influence on development of the VIT. Ambulation Ground Reaction Forces. Biofidelity of the XST shoe tester.

Chapter 4. Myths About Pedestrian Slip Resistance 37
SCOF of .50. How people walk. Pedestrian traction demand. Measurement techniques. Slider pad selection. The static/dynamic controversy. Traction requirements on stairs. Psychological factors.

Chapter 5. Current Slip Resistance Testing Standards 47
US testing standards in wide use: ASTM, ANSI, NFPA, OSHA. Non-standard tribometers.

Chapter 6. Instruction Manual for the English XL VIT 51
How to use the VIT. Applications for its use. Slider pad preparation. Using the stair fixture. Recording results.

Chapter 7. The Validation of Slipmeters 61
Must be able to avoid sticktion. Agreeing with fall statistics. Consideration of gait dynamic parameters. The German Ramp Test. Slipmeter validation guidelines. Validation of the VIT. Appendices: VIT precision workshop results.

Chapter 8. Effects of Various Dynamic Parameters 77
Every parameter affects the slipmeter results: surface area, velocity, force angle of impact, duration of application. Effects of slope.

Chapter 9. On the Uses of Tribometery 83
Who is using slipmeters. What slipmeters are used for. Who is writing slipmeter standards. Role of regulators.

Chapter 10. Slips and Falls in Restaurants 89
The effects of grease on floors. Problem floors. Cleaning methods. The grease polymerization problem. Effects of water hardness. Detergents.

Chapter 11. Bathing Surfaces 97
Background on ASTM F462. Test protocol. Why the standard does not work. Remedies for tub falls.

Chapter 12. Factoring Slip Resistance into Means of Access to Mobile & Industrial Equipment 101
Design parameters for access ladders, steps, handholds and walking surfaces. Fire fighting apparatus. Human factors considerations. Avoiding product liability arising from negligent design.

Chapter 13. Traction Testing of Footwear 111
US testing standards and their limitations. Available shoe traction testing apparatus. SATRA Machine. The Australian analog. Redfern machines. English XST. English SST and other sportshoe testers.

Chapter 14. OSHA: the Politics of Slip Resistance 125
The "English II" OSHA research project, including a copy of the report to OSHA, "Investigation of Means of Enhancing Footwear Traction for Ironworkers Working at Heights," with appendices. The basis of new OSHA regulation.

Chapter 15. Slider Pads 158
Qualities of an acceptable pad material. Deficiencies of leather. Neolite. Neoprene. 4-S rubber. Other materials. Pad preparation. The effects of temperature. The effects of contaminants.

Chapter 16. Should the Threshold of Safety Be .50? 165
Historical precedent: Underwriters Labs, D21, OSHA, ATBTB, C21, case law, expert opinion. The effects of contaminants on available traction. Other factors.

Chapter 17. Practical Aspects of Field Testing 171
Testfoot preparation. Standard reference surface. Tightness of universal joint. Testing protocol. Testing downhill. Cleaning up after testing. Instrument calibration.

Glossary 175

Publications by William English 178

CV of William English 181


The book contains 200 pages and is profusely illustrated.


This book may be purchased from http://www.exceltribometers.com/pub.htm


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